Final Exam

Question #1

My research work entitled “Educational Parental Involvement” would be an incredible asset to the educational journal Cambridge Journal of Education. This educational journal focuses on the growth of the educational system. The researchers and writers that are published within the journal, find themselves creating more effective ways to transfer knowledge to young students and create a better understanding of educational materials. The journal states that, “Cambridge Journal of Education has always enjoyed a wide international readership and encouraged contributors to make comparisons between different educational systems and cultures.” Due to the diversity wanted by this particular publication, I feel that my research would be perfect for this publication. My article explores the possibility of cutting parents and guardians from classrooms altogether. Many of the articles inside of the publication discuss the positive relationship between parents/guardians and the classroom, the researchers show the positive effects that allowing parents inside of the classroom has on the students. My research work elaborates on the positive attributes parental involvement has on student progress, however I also address the negative side of the spectrum. Within my research writing I walk through both the negative and the positive correlations between student performance and parental involvement. My article would add diversity into the publication because it speaks on a topic that no other researcher inside of the publication has addressed. As a researcher, I felt that it was very important to view both sides of the topic. I see that it is very necessary to introduce the “not so popular” idea that parents actually may cause more harm than good (in some cases) to readers. I feel that my research work will bridge the two issues together. Many readers are already more than well aware of the need for parental involvement in school in many areas, however many parents and guardians are oblivious to the fact that they cause harm when they are involved in other areas of education. For example, many parents/guardians believe that they need to be involved when the student brings home a project to complete. However, what they do not understand is that there help with a certain project is causing an inability to correctly asses student understanding. I believe that my research publication would provide the final piece of the puzzle needed to bridge the gap in understanding parental involvement in educational situations. I believe that both sides of the issue needs to be addressed in order for researchers, educators, and administrators to truly understand the positives and the negatives associated with parental involvement in the educational system. Once both sides of the argument are clearly addressed and understood it will become much clearer on what should be done to create the greatest environment for young students. Due to the fact that the Cambridge Journal of Education addresses strictly educational issues and is filled with researchers that work endlessly to better our educational environment, I fill that my research work would be a great article to include in this publication. My research work will bridge the gap between both the negative and the positive effects of parental involvement in the educational system and will help to create a better understanding of the roles of parents/guardians inside school systems.


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Question #2

Dear dumb, young, and probably not studying like you should be self,

b11            01is-it-real-or-is-it-rhetoric-article-3755      64567043


Conclusion = ksljdfgklsdjgs

 My    point    is,    don’t    believe    anything    out    there    in    the    wild,    there    is rhetoric    attached    to    everything!!




Rhetorical devices in the classroom


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I am currently enrolled in a Foundations of Education class that assigned me to complete thirty hours of observation inside of a high school classroom. I just completed my thirty hours of observing, and I fond that there are MANY rhetorical devices used by teachers inside of every single classroom. English 3050 helped me discover so much more of the rhetorical world. I now realize that there is so much more rhetoric used in every day life than I had ever realized. Furthermore, taking that knowledge and applying it to my observing in the classroom brought to the light all of the secret devices teachers use to effectively teach students the information that they need to know. For example, teachers create handouts to give students to make it easier for students to read and understand information. Handouts are a rhetorical device used by educators. They are able to use the tools as a way to get their point across. Also, the way that the information is formatted on the handout is also a rhetorical device. Many teachers use headings to show the different importance’s of information. Headings make it easier to remember information and see what descriptions correspond with what key words. Teachers also use rhetoric when they determine how they need to say certain things. It is a rhetorical device to raise your voice at a student that is misbehaving. Teachers know that raising their voice will create a sense of fear in students and will allow the students to see that they are upset. Rhetoric is also hidden in the decorations on the walls of every single classroom. Teachers make a rhetorical decision when they decide what is important enough to make onto the walls of their classrooms. The walls inside of a classroom are seen every single day by students and what teachers choose to place on those walls will also be seen every day. Teachers usually choose to place rules, student work, and important dates on the walls of their classroom. The decision on what to place on the classroom walls hold an extreme rhetorical importance. Placing student work on the walls is a rhetorical device because it allows students to see that their good work is actually being seen and it is importance. Putting great work on display makes students want to work hard and create work that is worthy of being placed on the wall. Using rhetorical devices such as this to create a way to make students want to work to your expectations is a rhetorical tool that I had not thought of before. Also, keeping your classroom rules portrayed on the wall where they can be seen every single day gives credibility to the teacher. When a student acts up in class, the teacher is able to say that they knew better because the rules are right there in front of their face every single day. This appeals to the ethos of a teacher. Displaying rules every day acts a rhetorical tool to make sure that every student is constantly reminded of what is expected from students. It was extremely amazing to be able to realize just how much rhetoric was placed in a classroom.

Helpful Reaserch

Thurston Domina wrote an article called “Leveling the Home Advantage: Assessing the Effectiveness of Parental Involvement in Elementary School.” This particular article has proven to be extremely helpful with my efforts to complete my research project. The article, written in 2005, is filled with incredible information to help with my understanding of parental involvement in school. The article itself takes the stand that parents should be left out of all student activities. The speaker states that it is completely unfair to judge the success of a student based on things like homework and projects because it is ridiculously impossible to know whose parents completed the project for them, and whose did not. Also, the article goes into great detail to explain that even if no student’s project is completed by their parents there is a total difference in the projects completed by students with no help and students that were given guidance. It explains that many students are given credit for projects they themselves did not complete; whereas, other students receive a very poor grade because the work they truly did on their own was being compared, and graded accordingly, to work that was truly completed by an adult. I will use this article in my work to show that parental involvement can be both a negative and positive contributor to the education of students. This article will also be helpful with making the argument that parental involvement should not be a factor in some areas, the article will make that much easier to see and much easier to read.  The article breaks down the theory, and provides many easy to understand examples.

This article helped me to understand that there really is areas within education and schooling that parents should not be involved in. More importantly, I began to see that there are many areas where parents are involved but they are actually more involved negatively than positively. Positive influence is extremely important within our school systems and I believe that this arrival helped me, as a reader, to more clearly understand where parents hold a role within the educational system and where they absolutely shouldn’t hold any importance. The article also helped to me understand that we have to realize that not every student comes from our same background, there are students facing issues that we didn’t have to face. Many students are growing up facing hardships we have never had to deal with before and it is important for teachers to realizer that they are dealing with an incredibly diverse student body.


Finally, there were rhetorical devices placed throughout this article everywhere. The article appealed to the emotions very quickly and caused the reader to create a connection with the reader. However, even though the article created an emotional connection it also came in quickly and made it clear that it was factual based. The author integrated writings from other authors and even supplied statics to show that he knew the topic well and wanted to provide evidence of that.

Smiley = Rhetoric…Whhhhaaatt?

It is sometimes extremely difficult to wrap your head around the fact that rhetoric is literally EVERYWHERE. So much so, that I just used rhetoric in that sentence, TWICE!

Even though one may not even know what rhetoric is, or not realize that they do indeed know how to use it; rhetoric can be found, placed, and seen just about anywhere. A perfect example of a rhetorical device that is used billions of times a day is the emoticon. These tiny, and creative, tools are strategically placed into hundreds of thousands of text messages, emails, and advertisements daily. For those of you going “what in the world is an emoticon,” here you go:

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Emoticons are a beautiful rhetorical device that are thoughtfully placed in the perfect place and at the perfect time. An appropriately placed and used emoticon can be very affective in clearing up confusing and expressing emotions through cold text. However, just as a greatly used emoticon can be incredibly useful, a poorly used emoticon can create extreme confusion in a situation that would have been easy to understand. For example, if I send my brother a message that reads “my dog died” he will automatically assume that I am upset and need to be comforted. However, if I send him a message that reads, “my dog got hit by a car 94f03e8e72647373f93d5271ee594cfb” it will probably cause some confusion as to why I am laughing hysterically after finding out that my dog has died.

Media, text messaging, and written advertisement seem to somehow lose their emotions when they can not be heard from someone. Reading a cold written text message does not show the true emotion of the writer as much as a phone call where you could hear the sadness in someone’s voice would. For this reason, emoticons are awesome! They embed the ability to see emotion into a written text. They prevent people from getting offended when they shouldn’t, mistaking the mood of the writer, and sometimes they prevent things from being read in the wrong tone.

Emoticons are also proven to a rhetorical device because you have to know when to use them. For example, rhetorically speaking, it probably isn’t the greatest choice to insert an emoticon of any meaning into an email to the State Board of Education. Emoticons seemed to be viewed as unprofessional, and in the professional world the only tone that should be used is a professional one therefore emoticons should not be placed inside of written documents to express tone and emotion. However, in a text message to your significant other they are extremely important.

Finally, emoticons can be seen as rhetorical devices because they are targeted to a certain audience. You use certain emoticons for certain readers. For example, if you are trying to get a message across quickly without having to type out any lengthy words, inserting an emoticon and sending it out off quickly to your mother would be perfect. Emoticons are incredibly useful rhetorical tools that are used daily by people of all ages, that probably have absolutely no clue they are exposing themselves to rhetoric.

Idioms! Idioms Everywhere!! 3/10/16

Jay Heinrichs defines an idiom in his book Thank You for Arguing: What Aristotle, Lincoln, and Homer Simpson Can Teach Us about the Art of Persuasion. Heinrichs defines an idiom as, “Inseparable words with a single meaning. Often mistaken for figures in general, the idiom is merely a kind of figure.” [Heinrichs, 299] Idioms combine words that have a meaning of their own. [Heinrichs, 211]

Idioms are a rhetorical tool that are seen, and used, everywhere around us. Many people are probably completely unaware that the rhetorical device in which they are using actually as a name. SUPRISE!! That phrase of words you just used has a name of its own, idiom.


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I am going to try and break down the meaning of idiom in a way that is easier to understand. Idiom, simply defined, is a group of words that mean something other than what is literally spoken. For example, “You’re the apple of my eye” doesn’t actually mean you are the apple in someone’s eye. The phrase itself has a different meaning than the words alone, it means that you are really important to the person that stated the phrase.

Idioms are super popular and can be found almost anywhere, but people are still not very sure of what they are doing when they use an idiom. Which begs the question, why are idioms so popular and exactly how do they work in the rhetorical world?

Idioms are important to the rhetorical world because they allow people to say things in a more creative way. For example, saying “Back to the drawing board” is both easier and more creative than “okay, we have to start over.” Idioms work almost as a language of there own. We can speak to each other with phrases that we understand, but if they were broken down wouldn’t mean what they appear as at all. Idioms are also popular because they are fun. Idioms had humor into everyday conversation. It seems more fun to say “Elvis has left the building” than it does to say “The show is over.” Idioms also bring real life situations into conversation without having to tell an entire different story. For example, “Don’t count your chickens before the egg has hatched” means to not count on something that may never happen. However, using the phrase “don’t count your chickens before the egg has hatched” adds a bit of logic to the situation. You know that chicks may die before they hatch, so you wouldn’t want to count the eggs as a “chicken” until they were  hatched and walking around. Using an idiom instead of having tell an entire egg hatching story adds logic and it is simply much faster.

dont count your chickens

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Idioms are extremely popular all over the world. In television, in speeches, in everyday conversation. Idioms serve the purpose of creativity, humor, and quick logic. Idioms are a great rhetorical tactic that do there job and get the point across in an amazing way. When it comes to rhetorical devices and decisions, using an idiom should always be a go to.

Funeral & Trial of John Smith 3/1/16


John Smith was not only an incredible man of God, an amazing father, and an incredible carpenter; he was also an outstanding husband. John touched the lives of many people in his short 24 years on Earth, but I can assure you he had the greatest impact on me and our daughter. John showed us both how to love unconditionally, introduced us the word of God, and made sure that we knew he loved us more than wither one of could possibly imagine. Kyla and I talk about John constantly throughout each passing day; she shares with me her fondest memories of her and her daddy (some I didn’t even know about). It is an incredible feeling knowing that he made such a difference in such a short time. I can not understand why such a tragic situation had to unfold in John’s life, but what I do is that God is a mighty God and he has a plan for every person in this room. I find myself questioning why this had to happen, and I want to be angry with John’s killer. However, I know that is not at what he would have wanted. He would have told me to find comfort in the fact that he is now in a much better place, and he would tell me to pray. He would say, pray hard; pray really hard because the man that did this will never get to experience the Heaven that I am in now, and that is the saddest situation of all. John Smith was in incredible husband, father, and preacher; he was amazing at spreading the word of God and introducing people to the Bible. If John could speak to the people here today he would tell us all to wipe our tears and let go of the sadness; but he would also tell those of you that have not found your Lord Jesus Christ yet that you never know when you will run out of time. He would want you all to understand that you never know when your time will end, and it will forever be the greatest tragedy to not live your eternal life in Heaven.

ANALYSIS: I wrote the eulogy to strictly appeal to the emotions. Funerals in my culture are never happen, that are a moment to grieve. However, they are also sometimes also used to convince other people to change their life. Many preachers that have delivered eulogies have also seized the opportunity to deliver a message. I decided to follow the crowd and do the same thing. I appealed to the emotional side, but I also included some logic. At the beginning I included facts about the person that would make what was going to follow seem even more sad. Also, I included character qualities that make the person out to look as if they were the model human being. These are strategies that are used to insure that everyone there is both touch, and feels terrible about what happened.  I included nothing bad about “John” because it was not the goal to make people see the real person he was; it was the goal to create an emotional connection that would make everyone very sad that he was gone.



John Smith was a husband, father, and a wonderful asset to his community. John preached at South Side Baptist Church, and had coached youth baseball for two years. John and his wife had just welcomed there new baby girl into the family just three weeks before his murder. How could one person possibly take a life from a man that gave so much to others? John loved his wife and daughter to the end of the Earth, and now they have to live the rest of their life without him because of this man (points to suspect). I know almost each and every one of you are parents, could you imagine your child losing you at the hands of another human being. Could you imagine them waking up every day knowing you were stabbed to death? How about this, could you imagine what it would be like to lose your child to a murder? Because John was a son as well. It is an awful feeling to have to face the facts every single day when his wife, parents, grandparents, friends, and DAUGHTER wake up. Every day when they wake up they are going to have to look themselves in the mirror and face reality: John was murdered; stabbed to death my another man. There is nothing any of us can do to change that, I wish we could, but we can’t. That reality is always going to be the reality they face. But please, you 12 people can make a difference in their lives. You can. You can take the man that committed this awful crime off of the streets. Please don’t make them go through having to face that the man that murdered their love one is still walking the streets. Don’t do that to this people, they have gone through enough. You 12 people need to make the difference that you are being given the opportunity to make and take this man off of the streets!



I wrote the closing arguments to appeal to both the emotions and the logic. I used epideictic rhetoric to blame the other man for everything. I painted John Smith to be a perfect human and made it appear that there was absolutely no reason behind his murder. I said things like “I know you all are parents” to engage the emotional connection the jury had to the fact that John was both a parent and a child to someone. Also, I used the word murder over and over and over again. I never said kill or deceased. I used a harsh word like murder because it was harder it would hit a nerve in the jury that the word kill would not. Finally, I closed the argument by stating that the jury needed to do their part. I used the tactic of guilt to try and get them to do as a I wanted them to do. I wanted to make them believe that if they didn’t do as they should (find the man guilty) then they were going to make these people suffer even more; and they just couldn’t do that.


Murder of John Smith 2/26/16     


Detective’s Report: 

Young white male John Smith was murdered at the Long Branch Parking Garage on June 6, 2012 at 10:37 PM. He was found with multiple puncture wounds, mainly in the abdomen area. It appeared as if he was trying to open his trunk when the suspect found him and began to stab him with an unknown object. John Smith was lying in a pool of blood, face up, when he was found by the parking garage security. At this time there are no suspects, and there has not been a murder weapon found.

Coroner’s Report:

John Smith, white male, 23 years of age, and was in good health before the date June 6, 2012.Jake Robins,  Ralms County Coroner, have determined that the deceased was murdered. After many examinations of the puncture wounds found on the deceased abdomen, it was determined that he was stabbed to death with an ice pick. There were twelve puncture wounds counted on the abdomen of the deceased. Further information includes that the deceased died from blood loss after his main vein under the left lunge was severed.


The writing of the Detective’s Report, as well as the Coroner’s Report, was written in such a way that the information could be obtained quickly. As the writer, I knew that these readings would be read aloud inside of many offices and court rooms. Because of the need for the information to be read quickly, and be comprehended, I knew that the information had to be written in order of importance. I began with the most important facts, and followed by the information that was not detrimental to the report. These reports are also used to create a forensic argument so the reports needed to be completely filled with facts. Also, because of the forensic approach, the reports need not have an appeal to the emotions (pathos). The reports were written to provide evidence and be comprehend if read aloud, and read quickly.

Bad Proof is Bad! 2/18/16

As group two pointed out in their wiki post, “Rhetoric terms that are considered Bad Proof are: false comparison, all natural fallacy, appeal to popularity, hasty generalization, misinterpreting the evidence, unit fallacy, and fallacy of ignorance.” (Heinrichs, 294)

If Bad Proof is so bad, why is it used so often and why does it seem to work? Bad Proof seems to be the last go to, it is the rhetorical strategy used when the speaker doesn’t know what else to do. For example, when a politician is trying to make another candidate look bad that usually jump to Bad Proof. This often happens because the politicians do not know enough about each others character to create a correct assumption that is backed up by true facts. Instead, politicians jump to using false or exaggerated information in hopes of appealing to the emotional side of the their listeners.

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Jay Heinrichs points out on page 122 of his book Thank You For Arguing, “appealing to logos works well in defense, it gives us the chance the skip the facts.”

This is exactly why the use of Bad Proof is so incredibly popular. It gives speakers the opportunity to neglect the facts and what is actually going on. Bad Proof adapts to the audience and gives them exactly what they want to hear. It no longer matters what the truth is, only what sounds good. In the minds of speakers, politicians mainly, the main thing that needs to be through a speech is to paint an incredible picture; it doesn’t matter if it realistic or even if it can be done, it just has to sound amazing.

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Prime example, Donald Trump’s Wall. He states that we should trust his word, this wall can be done. He also “proves” that it will work by saying that China built a wall and they have very few Mexicans. This is a perfect example of Bad Proof; it worked for China so it has to work for us. Not exactly, China definitely doesn’t lay directly on the border of Mexico.

It is important to understand that Bad Proof plays off of ignorance. Every speaker on the planet that uses the strategy of Bad Proof does it because they know, or hope, that their audience is ignorant in the subject. Anyone can speak on a certain top and sound intelligent if the listener knows nothing about the subject. For example, I could sit here and convince you that softballs are bigger than baseballs because it has been proven that women have a harder time seeing than men. In 2014 more women were involved in car crashes that men, that MUST mean they can’t see as well. Therefore, softballs HAVE to be bigger than baseballs. For a reader, viewer, or listener that knows nothing on the subject of baseball and softball it would be incredibly easy to convince them of anything, especially if I seem to be credible.

Ignorance and Bad Proof go hand-in-hand. It is incredibly important that we research topics instead of jumping on the bandwagon. It only takes one idiot to spread the word and create a pack of idiots with an idiot for a leader.



Reading Response to Johnstone Article ENGL 3050 2/14/2016

Barbara Johnstone uses this article to share her opinion on what discourse analysis means to her, and to explain the science behind the decisions that are made while speaking. As explained by Johnstone in the introduction of her book Discourse Analysis, 2nd ed., “Analyzing discourse is examining aspects of the structure and function of language in use.” Johnstone’s article digs deeper into the reasons we choose to speak the way we do, and discusses the strategies that play out in discussions.   When talking about discourse analysis, or rhetoric, I use the terms speaking and writing extremely loosely. Rhetoric is seen in all forms; written, spoken, painted, picture, and even through video. In my opinion that was Johnstone’s entire point throughout this article; she wanted her reading audience to be able to understand that every single thing in the world is placed at the perfect place, at the perfect time, for a perfectly strategic reason. For example, she explains in the article that an ad placed out side of a theatre thanking all of its joined members, is not only placed there to thank the people that have already subscribed to this theatre magazine, but also to encourage other people to join. The readers of this particular ad would be drawn in and tempted to join without the creator of the ad having to say anything directed straight at those people.

Johnstone also explains the importance, as an audience, to understand rhetorical approaches. She explains that it is extremely important to have an understanding of this rhetorical decisions not only as a writer, but also as an audience. As a listening audience member, engaged reader, or lover of the news you can be easily fooled and tricked into believing false information if you are not aware of the strategies being but in place through such beautiful wording. Likewise, she explains that it is also very important to be able to understand it as a writer; all writers should be able to touch every audience. It is important to understand that not everyone will want to read five hundred words typed into a blog post, but that same reader will be extremely interested in five words plastered across a picture of a grumpy cat. This ties into what Dr. Woodsworth presented to us today in class. Like Johnstone, she also spoke on the importance of making sure that what the message you are trying to convey, is actually the message that gets herd. It is important to realize that someone saying, “I’m sorry you do not agree with me” is completely different than someone saying, “I am sorry you feel that way, but we may have to agree to disagree this time.” Understanding that there are small “hidden” messages within other messages can help develop better writers, as well as better listeners. Discourse, formatting, and rhetoric shapes everything; they determine the way things are heard, seen, and understood. One small change in a rhetorical decision can change the entire way a conversation takes place and whether or not there is a positive outcome at the end.

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